Monday, July 29, 2013

29 July Knowledge History - Science, Engineering and Management


29 July 1841 - Henri Fayol - Started the discussion of Principles of  Management in Engineering or Industrial Organizations

29 July 1917 Harry Boot - Developer of Cavity Magnetron

Nobel Laureates

1898 Issidor Issac Rabi - Physics
1900 Eyvind Johnson - Literature


1890 - Laroy Sunderland Starrett received a U.S. patent for his micrometer screw guage (No. 433,311),

Knowledge History of the Day - Index for the Year

Management Theory Review Blog
Management Knowledge Center
Engineering and Technology Knowledge Center
Science Knowledge Center
Social Science Knowledge Center

Saturday, July 20, 2013

Political Party Marketing - Understanding the Needs and Desires of People

Management of Political Party Article  Series

Importance of Desires and Needs of People

Political parties in a democracy exist to reflect the desires and needs of people. An individual or group of persons should try to form a political party only when they have the intention to represent the people in the legislature and administrative wings of a state.
Before the party is formed as well as when the party is in power, political party has to carry out marketing. It has to know what people want and desire.
In a democracy, wherein political parties are not adequately connected to people, there will be frustration among people. There will be agitation to change the system whenever majority of the people feel frustrated with the system.
Every political party member is to be entrusted the work of meeting around 50 persons every year to know people, keep the channels of contact open and ascertain the desires and needs of people.
Print based newspapers and periodicals were available and were used to some extent by political parties.
Information technology based systems now can be put in place to leverage the basic personal contact established by primary members of the party.
Political Parties and the Internet: Net Gain
The web sites of political parties can be used to ascertain the popular opinion on various issues. Various TV channels are employing this method. But are political parties employing the technique? Each and every politician needs to put up a voting facility  on his website for his constituency people for each piece of legislation on which he has to vote in the legislature. He has to ascertain first desire of his people and if there is a marginal difference he may call for a public meeting to explain his reasoning. But if a overwhelming majority gives an opinion, he has to honor the opinion even if he is personally against it. 
Can visitors cite any legislator who follows the practice of asking his constituency people to vote on pending legislations?

Behavioral Segmentation of Potential Voters

Kotler in his discussion of behavioral segmentation includes segmentation based on attitude. In attitude based segmentation, five groups are identified for a product or service in a market. The five groups of people are enthusiastic, positive, indifferent, negative, and hostile. Door-to-door political campaigners change their canvassing approach according to the attitude of the voter. Enthusiastic voters are thanked and will be asked to vote without fail. Reinforcement is done for positive voters. Efforts are made to win over indifferent voters. They do not spend time with voters with negative and hostile attitude to the party and the candidate. Party has to undertake its marketing and communication activities to see that negative and hostile voters with respect to their party are in a minority at the start of the election campaign. Then only their team can hope to effectively canvass for victory.


Political Market Planning Activities

Market position analysis
Determining how voters perceive the party and candidates

Objective setting
Determining the issues which will be highlighted for competing.

Strategic alternative analysis
Selection of segments in the electorate and messages for these segments

Strategy implementation
Allocation of resources

Monitoring and control
Mid-term analysis and post-election analysis

Source: The Political Marketing Planning Process: Improving Image and Message in Strategic Target Areas
Marketing Intelligence and Planning, 2002


The idea of political marketing By Nicholas J. O'Shaughnessy, Stephan C. M. Henneberg, 2002
Political marketing and British political parties: the party's just begun By Jennifer Lees-Marshment
Current Issues in Political Marketing By Walter W. Wymer, Jennifer Lees-Marshment, 2006

Interesting Web Sites and Blogs

Grand Central Political, a website connecting people working in politics and political media directly with politicians, campaigns, public relations firms, and media outlets looking for both experts and new talent. The firm serves the USA, Canada, UK and France.
Located through the knol Rachel Marsden.

New Related to Political Party Marketing Activities


Related Knols

Links to be changed to Blog posts

International Day Democracy - 15th September


More Articles and Papers

Research Papers

Utilizing Political Ideologies To Market A Political Candidate
Shermichael V. Singleton, Morehouse College, USA
Andrew Honeycutt, Shorter University, USA
Journal of Business & Economics Research – January 2012 Volume 10, Number 1

Comparative Advertising: Strategy in U.S. House Elections
Conference Paper, 2011

Political Advertising in Democratic Taiwan
Audiences’ Perspectives on Political Figures through Image-Building Advertisements

The political marketing planning process: improving image and message in strategic target areas
2002 paper

Political marketing – vive la diffĂ©rence!
Andrew Lock and Phil Harris
Faculty of Management and Business,
The Manchester Metropolitan University, Manchester, UK
European Journal of Marketing,
Vol. 30 No. 10/11, 1996, pp. 14-24.


News Related to Political Party Marketing Activities

12 August 2010

Tories posted a you tube video blaming the earlier labor administration for spending cuts.
Youtube Channel Conservative Party UK

15th July 2010
Australian labour  Party commissioned a social media platform.


Originally posted on Knol
Knol Number 670, Traffic rank 105