Sunday, December 10, 2017

11 December Knowledge History - Science, Engineering and Management

2010 - The world's first customer delivery of a Nissan Leaf all-electric vehicle was made  at Petaluma, California.


1882 -  Max Born - 1954 Nobel Prize in Physics for his "fundamental research in Quantum Mechanics, especially in the statistical interpretation of the wave function".

A popular book by Max Born - Restless Universe

1925 - Paul Greengard - American neurologist - awarded 2000 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine -  for  discoveries concerning how drugs affect the brain and recognizing drug addiction as a brain disease

Management Revision

Leading - Global Management Challenges

The System and Process of Controlling - Review Notes

Knowledge History of the Day - Index for the Year

Management Theory Review Blog
11 December 2017 - Registered 2.3 million cumulative page views.

Management Knowledge Center
Engineering and Technology Knowledge Center
Science Knowledge Center
Social Science Knowledge Center

Updated 11 December 2017, 29 November 2012

Knowledge History of The Day - Index of the Year


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The information presently available: Birthdays of scientists, engineers, and management scholars.
Patent issues and events, and news

Bibliography - Knowledge History

Knowledge History - Science, Engineering and Management - Resources

Introduction to the history of science - Walter Libby
   Google Book link

History of Science - George Sarton - 5 Volumes
One volume available on

Prof. Narayana Rao  Science Blogs

Engineering Blogs

Management Blogs

Management Theory Review

Updated 11 December 2017, 15 May 2014

December - Knowledge History - Science, Engineering and Management

Date Wise Knowledge History


 1          2       3      4        5       6      7     8        9     10

11       12     13    14      15     16    17    18     19     20

21       22     23    24      25     26    27    28      29     30


Knowledge History of the Day - Index for the Year

Management Theory Review Blog
Management Knowledge Center
Engineering and Technology Knowledge Center
Science Knowledge Center
Social Science Knowledge Center

Einstein's Quest for Unified Theory

Updated 11 December 2017, 1 July 2012

Friday, May 12, 2017

February - Month Birthdays - Management Scholars and Professionals

1 - John Little (1928)
3 - Stephen Ross (1944), Raghuram Rajan (1963)
5 - James Tobin (1918)
8 - Joseph Schumpeter (1883)
11 - Thomas Edison (1847)
12 -  Russell Ackoff (1919), John J. Donovan (1942)
14 - Sakichi Toyoda (1867),  Eugene F. Fama (1939)
16 - Stephen R. Barley (1953)
21 - Kenichi Ohmae (1943)
27 - Irving Fisher (1867)
28 - Carl Barth (1860)
29 - Taiichi Ohno (1912)

MIT Sloan School of Management Faculty

Updated 14 May 2017

Thursday, May 4, 2017

Emotions and Emotional Intelligence - Research, Researchers, Philosophers and Writers

A List of Researchers, Philosophers, and Writers and Some of Their Papers, Articles and weblinks

References given in  Goleman's books as the basis. 

Book - Daniel Goleman's Emotional Intelligence

Aristotle's Challenge
Aristotle, The Nicomachean Ethics
Part One - The Emotional Brain

Chapter 1 What Are Emotions For?
Chapter 2 Anatomy of an Emotional Hijacking
Joseph LeDoux, Neuroscientist at the Center of Neural Science at New York University
Dr. Antonio Damasio, Neurologist at the University of Iowa College of Medicine
Part Two - The Nature of Emotional Intellgence

Chapter 3 - When Smart is Dumb

Richard Herrnstein and Charles Murray
Book "The Bell Curve"
Karen Arnold, Professor of Education at Boston University
Howard Gardner, Harvard School of Education
Principal publications - list
Multiple Lenses on The Mind, 2005

The 25th anniversary of the publication of Howard Gardner’s Frames of Mind: The Theory of Multiple
Intelligences, 2008
B.F. Skinner
E.L. Thorndike
Peter Salovey
Indexs of articles
Emotional Intelligence - Seminal Article by Salovey and Mayer
Evidence that EI makes a difference. Presentation 2004
The Evolution of Emotional Intelligence, Presentation, 2005
Emotion Regulation Abilities and the Quality of Social Interaction, Paper in Emotion 2005
Robert Sternberg
Sternberg, R. J. (1993). Sternberg Triarchic Abilities Test. Unpublished research instrument available from author.
Sternberg, R. J. (1985). Beyond IQ: A triarchic theory of human intelligence. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Sternberg, R. J. (1996). Successful intelligence. New York: Simon & Schuster. (Paperback edition: New York: Dutton, 1997).
Sternberg, R. J., & Grigorenko, E. L.  (2000). Teaching for successful intelligence. Arlington Heights, IL: Skylight Training and Publishing Inc. 
Jack Block

Chapter 4 Know Thyself

Socrates,  “Know thyself.”

Freud, Evenly hovering attention

John Mayer, A University of New Hampshire Psychologist

Peter Salovey, Yale University

Edward Diener, A University of Illinois at Urbana psychologist

Dr. Peter Sifnoes, the Harvard Psychiatrist

Antonio Damasio

Chapter 5 Passion’s Slaves
Page Dubois, Greek Scholar

John Bowlby and D.W. Winnicott, Psychoanalysis

Benjamin Franklin

Dolf Zillmann, Psychology, University of Alabama

Redford Williams, Psychiatry, Duke University

Chogyam Trungpa, a Tibetan teacher

Lizabeth Roemer and Thomas Borkovec, Psychology, Pennsylvania State University

Diane Tice

William Styron

Susan Nolen-Hoeksma

Richard Wenzlaff

Daniel Weinberger

Richard Davidson, Psychology, University of Wisconsin

Chapter 6 The Master Attitude

Sanford Doenbusch, Sociology, Stanford
Walter Mischel, Psychology
Richard Alpert
Ralph Haber
C.R. Snyder, University of Kansas, Psychology
Martin Seligman
Albert Bandura
Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi

Chapter 7 The Roots of Empathy

Robert Rosenthal, Psychology, Harvard: He devised a test of empathy, the PONS (Profile of Nonverbal Sensitivity).
Martin L Hoffman,  New York University
E. B. Titchener (1920s)
Marian Radke-Yarrow and Carolyn Zahn-Waxler, National Institute of Mental Health
Daniel Stern, Psychiatry, Cornell University School of Medicine
Leslie Brother, Psychiatry, California Institute of Technology (Biology of Empathy)
Robert Levenson, Psychology, University of California at Berkeley
John Donne (English Poet)
William Pithers, Vermont Prison Psychologist
Robert Hare, Psychology, University of British Columbia

Chapter 8 The Social Arts

Paul Ekman
Ulf Dimberg, University of Uppsala
John Cacioppo, Social Psychology, Ohio State University
Frank Bernieri, Psychology, Oregon State University
Thomas Hatch
W.H. Auden
Helena Deutsch, Psychoanalyst
Lakin Phillips, Psychology, George Washington University
Stephen Nowicki, Psychology, Emory University

Chapter 9 Intimate Enemies

Sigmund Freud
Leslie Brody and Judith Hall
Carol Gilligan, Harvard
Ted Hudson, Psychology, University of Texas
John Gottman, Psychology, University of Washington
Aaron Beck, Founder of Cognitive Therapy
Robert Levenson, Psychology, University of California at Berkeley
Haim Ginott, Psychology,

Chapter 10 Managing with Heart

Shoshona Zuboff, Psychology, Harvard Business School
J.R. Larson, Psychology, University of Illinois at Urbana
Harry Levinson, Psychoanalyst turned corporate consultant
Dr. Vamik Volkan, Psychiatrist, University of Virginia
Thomsa Pettigrew, Social Psychology,University of California at Santa Cruz
Peter Drucker
Robert Sternberg
Wendy Williams
Robert Kelly and Janet Caplan (HBR article)

Chapter 11 Mind and Medicine

Robert Ader, University of Rochester
Francisco Varela, Ecole Polytechnique, Paris
David Felten
Dr. Camran Nezhat, Surgeon, Stanford University
Dr. Redford Williams, Duke University
Peter Haufman, National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute
Sheldon Cohen, Psychology,Carnegie-Mellon University
Stephen Manuck, Psychology, University of Pittsburgh
John Cacioppo
Dr. Jimmie Holland
Dr.Dean Ornish

Chapter 12 The Family Crucible

Carole Hooven and John Gottman
Dr. T. Berry Brazelton, Paediatrician

Chapter 13 Trauma and Emotional Relearning

Dr.Spencer Eth, Child psychiatrist
D.Dennis Charney
Dr. John Krystal
Dr. Charles Nemeroff
Richard Davidson
Dr. Leonor Terr
Dr. Judith Lewis Herman
Joseph LeDoux

Chapter 14 Temperment Is Not Destiny

Jerome Kagan
Thorsten Wiesel and David Hubel, Neuroscience, Nobel Prize Winners, Brain Growth

Chapter 15 Emotional Literacy

Urie Bronfenbrenner, Psychology, Cornell University
Gerald Patterson
John Lochman
Dr. Fredeirck Goodwin
Dr. David Kupfer
Maria Kovacs
Hilda Bruch
Harry Stack Sullivan, Psychoanalyst
Steven Asher, Psychology, University of Illinois
Stephen Nowicki, Emory University, Psychology
Ralph Tarter, Psychology, Western Psychiatric Institute and Clinic, Pittsburgh
Ronald Kessler, Sociology, University of Michigan

Chapter 16 Scholling the Emotions

Karen Stone McCown
Eric Schaps
Dr. David Hamburg
Linda Lantieri
Mark Greenberg
Tim Shriver
Amitai Etzioni, Social Theorist, George Washington University
Thomas Lickona

Examination of Measurements in Emotional Intelligence, Ergometrika, 2001

Emotional Intelligence: Key Readings on the Mayer and Salovey Model

edited by Peter Salovey, Marc A. Brackett, John D. Mayer
2004, Dude publishing, New York

My Knols on Emotional Intelligence

The Nature of Emotional Intelligence
Emotional Intelligence - Daniel Goleman - Book Information and Review
Emotional Intelligence - Information and Discussion Board
Emotional Intelligence - Education and Training Resources
Multiple Intelligences
Emotional Intelligence

Websites on Emotional Intelligence

Originally posted on Knol
 Knol Number 1298

Updated on 7 May 2017, 1 July 2013

Saturday, April 29, 2017

Political Party - Knowledge Management

Knowledge Sharing Management in Political Organization: ICT Roadmap model

Raja Ahmad Iskandar Raja Yaacob , and Muhammad Ridhuan Tony Lim Abdullah

Case Study: World’s Largest Political Party implements Newgen’s Knowledge Management system

Thursday, April 27, 2017

Management of Election Campaigns

Most of the political parties content in elections and they are organized for contesting in elections. Elections are the key feature of a democracy.

Parties have to make efforts to understand the election mechanism of the country and the mechanics of participating in the elections.

Advance Preparation of Bharatiya Janata Party for 2019 Lok Sabha Elections

29 April 2017
BJP President Amit Shah gave a call for 15 days full time work at booth level in each of the 543 Lok Sabha constituencies. He got 3,50,000 responses. Within that around 4000 people offered to work for 6 months to one year.  Within that the party identified 600 full time workers who will work full time till the counting is over in the elections. Amit Shah himself has volunteered to work for 15 days in booth level work. In addition till, September, which is the birth month of Pandit Deendayal Upadhyay, Shah has agreed to undertake a nation wide tour of 95 days.

The party has come out with six programmes, one for every two months for party's ideological and organization strenthening. The party is segregating its 10 crore membership into booth wise units. The party has recently started 19 new departments to manage its work.

Related  Material

Political Party Campaign Management CRM Solutions

Updated 29 April 2017
11 July 2012

Original URL: Knol - 2utb2lsm2k7a/680

Last edited: 04 Jan 2009

Exported: 26 Nov 2011

Management of Political Party in Democratic States (Countries)

Articles on the Theme

Democracy and Political Parties

Marketing or Understanding the Needs and Desires of People

Formation of a Political party

Constitution of a Political Party


Enrolling and Developing Members

Activities of Members

Party Organization

Financial Management of the Party

     Campaign Financing Through Crowd Funding

Mass Contact Programmes

Manifesto of the Party

Views of the Party on Legislative and Administrative Issues


Election Manifesto

Selection of constituencies and Candidates

Management of Election Campaigns

Election Canvassing

Voter Mobilization

Training of Legislators

Training of Administrative Team (Government) of the Party

Separation of Government and Party Affairs when in Power

Information Technology for Political Party Management

Management of Coalition Politilcs

Disciplining the Members

Mass Meetings

Protest Movements

Social Infrastructure Development

Cyber Political Parties



Promoting Credible Elections & Democratic Governance in Africa

Modern Political Party Management - What Can Be Learned from International Practices?
Catrina Schläger and Judith Christ (Eds.), 2014
Shanghai Coordination Office for International Cooperation
7A Da An Plaza East Tower, 829 Yan An Zhong Road
Tel: +86-21-6247-2529 Zip Code: 200040

A Guide to Political Party Development
National Democratic Institute for International Affairs (NDI) 2008
2030 M Street, NW • Floor 5
Washington, DC 20036

Best Practices of Effective Parties: Three training modules for political parties
Erica Breth and Julian Quibell, eds.
National Democratic Institute for International Affairs (NDI) 2003
2030 M Street, NW • Floor 5
Washington, DC 20036

Updated now:  29 April 2017,  5 Jan 2014
Edited on this blog: 11 July 2012

Original URL:
Last edited on Knol: 11 Jan 2009
Edited on this blog: 11 July 2012

Monday, April 10, 2017

Cardiac Pacemaker - Inventions, Developments, and Patents

In 1889, John Alexander MacWilliam reported in the British Medical Journal (BMJ) of his experiments in which application of an electrical impulse to the human heart in asystole caused a ventricular contraction and that a heart rhythm of 60–70 beats per minute could be evoked by impulses applied at spacings equal to 60–70/minute.

In 1926, Dr Mark C Lidwill of the Royal Prince Alfred Hospital of Sydney, supported by physicist Edgar H. Booth of the University of Sydney, devised a portable apparatus which "plugged into a lighting point" and in which "One pole was applied to a skin pad soaked in strong salt solution" while the other pole "consisted of a needle insulated except at its point, and was plunged into the appropriate cardiac chamber". "The pacemaker rate was variable from about 80 to 120 pulses per minute, and likewise the voltage variable from 1.5 to 120 volts". In 1928, the apparatus was used to revive a stillborn infant at Crown Street Women's Hospital, Sydney whose heart continued "to beat on its own accord", "at the end of 10 minutes" of stimulation.

In 1932, American physiologist Albert Hyman, with the help of his brother, described an electro-mechanical instrument of his own, powered by a spring-wound hand-cranked motor. Hyman himself referred to his invention as an "artificial pacemaker", the term continuing in use to this day.

An apparent hiatus in publication of research conducted between the early 1930s and World War II may be attributed to the public perception of interfering with nature by "reviving the dead". For example, "Hyman did not publish data on the use of his pacemaker in humans because of adverse publicity, both among his fellow physicians, and due to newspaper reporting at the time. Lidwell may have been aware of this and did not proceed with his experiments in humans".

In 1950, Canadian electrical engineer John Hopps designed and built the first external pacemaker based upon observations by cardio-thoracic surgeon's Wilfred Gordon Bigelow and John Callaghan at Toronto General Hospital, although the device was first tested at the University of Toronto's Banting Institute on a dog. A substantial external device using vacuum tube technology to provide transcutaneous pacing, it was somewhat crude and painful to the patient in use and, being powered from an AC wall socket, carried a potential hazard of electrocution of the patient and inducing ventricular fibrillation.

A number of innovators, including Paul Zoll, made smaller but still bulky transcutaneous pacing devices in the following years using a large rechargeable battery as the power supply.

In 1957, William L. Weirich published the results of research performed at the University of Minnesota. These studies demonstrated the restoration of heart rate, cardiac output and mean aortic pressures in animal subjects with complete heart block through the use of a myocardial electrode.[9]

In 1958 Colombian doctor Alberto Vejarano Laverde and Colombian electrical engineer Jorge Reynolds Pombo constructed an external pacemaker, similar to those of Hopps and Zoll, weighing 45 kg and powered by a 12 volt car lead acid battery, but connected to electrodes attached to the heart. This apparatus was successfully used to sustain a 70-year-old priest, Gerardo Florez.

The development of the silicon transistor and its first commercial availability in 1956 was the pivotal event which led to rapid development of practical cardiac pacemaking.

In 1958, engineer Earl Bakken of Minneapolis, Minnesota, produced the first wearable external pacemaker for a patient of C. Walton Lillehei. This transistorized pacemaker, housed in a small plastic box, had controls to permit adjustment of pacing heart rate and output voltage and was connected to electrode leads which passed through the skin of the patient to terminate in electrodes attached to the surface of the myocardium of the heart.

One of the earliest patients to receive this Lucas pacemaker device was a woman in her early 30s in an operation carried out in 1964 at the Radcliffe Infirmary in Oxford by cardiac surgeon Dr Alf Gunning from South Africa and later Professor Gunning[10][11] who was a student of Dr Christiaan Barnard. This pioneering operation was carried out under the guidance of cardiac consultant Dr Peter Sleight at the Radcliffe Infirmary in Oxford and his cardiac research team at St George's Hospital in London. Dr Sleight later became Professor of Cardiovascular Medicine at Oxford University.[12][13]


Illustration of implanted cardiac pacemaker showing locations of cardiac pacemaker leads
The first clinical implantation into a human of a fully implantable pacemaker was in 1958 at the Karolinska Institute in Solna, Sweden, using a pacemaker designed by Rune Elmqvist and surgeon Åke Senning, connected to electrodes attached to the myocardium of the heart by thoracotomy. The device failed after three hours. A second device was then implanted which lasted for two days. The world's first implantable pacemaker patient, Arne Larsson, went on to receive 26 different pacemakers during his lifetime. He died in 2001, at the age of 86, outliving the inventor as well as the surgeon.[14]

In 1959, temporary transvenous pacing was first demonstrated by Seymore Furman and John Schwedel, whereby the catheter electrode was inserted via the patient's basilic vein.[15]

In February 1960, an improved version of the Swedish Elmqvist design was implanted in Montevideo, Uruguay in the Casmu 1 Hospital by Doctors Orestes Fiandra and Roberto Rubio. That device lasted until the patient died of other ailments, nine months later. The early Swedish-designed devices used rechargeable batteries, which were charged by an induction coil from the outside. It was the first pacemaker implanted in America.

Implantable pacemakers constructed by engineer Wilson Greatbatch entered use in humans from April 1960 following extensive animal testing. The Greatbatch innovation varied from the earlier Swedish devices in using primary cells (mercury battery) as the energy source. The first patient lived for a further 18 months.

The first use of transvenous pacing in conjunction with an implanted pacemaker was by Parsonnet in the United States, Lagergren in Sweden[19][20] and Jean-Jacques Welti in France[21] in 1962–63. The transvenous, or pervenous, procedure involved incision of a vein into which was inserted the catheter electrode lead under fluoroscopic guidance, until it was lodged within the trabeculae of the right ventricle. This method was to become the method of choice by the mid-1960s.

Cardiothoracic Surgeon Leon Abrams, and Medical Engineer Ray Lightwood, developed and implanted the first patient controlled variable rate heart pacemaker in 1960 at Birmingham University. The first implant took place in March 1960, with two further implants the following month. These three patients made good recoveries and returned to a high quality of life. By 1966, 56 patients had undergone implantation with one surviving for over  5 1⁄2 years.

Adopted from

Thursday, February 16, 2017

World Class Manufacturing - Yamashina Way

On 24.10.2010, I participated in the presentations of Operations Management - On the Job Achievement Event of NITIE's IE organized event Lakshya.
There one of the jury members from FIAT India pointed out that WCM has Yamashina way. That leads to the inquiry - What is Yamashina Way?

Some sources to start with

Presentation by Fiat Executive -
The presentation refers to total industrial engineering.
(I collected some ideas on Total Industrial Engineering in Total Industrial Engineering - H. Yamashina )
Scott Garberding
Senior Vice President - Manufacturing/World Class Manufacturing, Chrysler Group LLC

“World Class Manufacturing: Agent of Cultural Change”
CAR Management Briefing Seminars
Grand Traverse Resort & Spa
Traverse City, Mich.
Aug. 2, 2010

The World Class Manufacturing has 10 pillars

1. Safety, Hygiene and Working Environment'
2. Customer service
3. Cost deployment
Cost Deployment—aims to identify problems that increase costs. It also approves improvement projects to reduce costs.

Good article on cost deployment
Cost Deployment Tool for Technological Innovation of World Class Manufacturing
Luan Carlos Santos Silva, João Luiz Kovaleski, Silvia Gaia, Manon Garcia, Pedro Paulo de Andrade Júnior
Department of Production Engineering and Technology Transfer Research Group, Federal University of Technology—Paraná (UTFPR), Ponta Grossa, Brazil
Journal of Transportation Technologies
Vol.3 No.1(2013).

4. Focused improvement
Focused Improvement—aims to develop the know how to reduce costs by using appropriate methods in problem areas identified by cost deployment investigations;

5. Quality control
6. Autonomous activity
7. Professional maintenance
8. Early products/Equipment management
9. People development/
10. Environment


Papers, Articles and Presentations by H. Yamashina

A Detailed presentation by Yamashina

Cost-optimized maintenance of the elevator – single unit case
Hajime Yamashina, Shunsuke Otani, (2001) "Cost-optimized maintenance of the elevator – single unit case", Journal of Quality in Maintenance Engineering, Vol. 7 Iss: 1, pp.49 - 70

Japanese manufacturing strategy and the role of total productive maintenance
H Yamashina - Journal of Quality in Maintenance Engineering, 1995

The service parts control problem
Engineering Costs and Production Economics
Volume 16, Issue 3, June 1989, Pages 195-208

A brochure of training program coordinated by H. Yamashina for European Managers in Japan

Related Material
Chrysler group business plan 2010-2014

Update 13 November 2016

I came across total industrial engineering once again. WCM of Yamashina is still under active implemenation and more articles are available on internet now.

New Holland Agriculture in Basildon is getting the benefit of 8% reduction in operating costs using the WCM methodology.

Cost deployment is described in more detail in the article

Cost Deployment Tool for Technological Innovation of World Class Manufacturing
Luan Carlos Santos Silva, João Luiz Kovaleski, Silvia Gaia, Manon Garcia, Pedro Paulo de Andrade Júnior
Department of Production Engineering and Technology Transfer Research Group, Federal University of Technology—Paraná (UTFPR), Ponta Grossa, Brazil
Journal of Transportation Technologies
Vol.3 No.1(2013).

Updated 19 February 2017,   13 November 2016,  23 October 2012

Originally Posted in Knol by Me

A comment on the Knol by a Fiat executive

1.s & wo (two diffrent activities&presentations during audit but one mark)
7.log & cs

By us i mean fiat europe.
Best regards
Bartosz.Dabrowski  at

World Class Manufacturing Blog by Oskar Oloffson

Wednesday, February 1, 2017

Case Study Method in Business Administration - Management

Important Points from

An Introduction to the Use of Cases

Arthur Stone Dewing
Article in Book, 1931

Cases should be used as education method in business education with the clear consciousness that the purpose of business education is not command of established precedents as in law or uncritical allegiance to experience of others, but the development of ability to think through the facts and come out with some intelligent solution. In business this solution must have adequate profit and therein lies the individual success and contribution to the economic prosperity of the country.

Teaching by case method results in the class in a combination of possibilities, probabilities and expedients. Possibilities are based on combination of intricate facts presented in the case (when coupled with various theories in diverse subjects of business management), probabilities refer to reactions of others in the class, and expedients are the various proposals and acts by the presenter to bring about the responses in other that lead to a definite end (agreement with his proposal).

Thinking happens when one is confronted with new situations and thinking prompts action. Cases provide thinking opportunity to students.

Important Points from

Because Wisdom Can't Be Told

Charles I. Gragg
Harvard Alumni Bulletin, 1940

Benefits of The Case Study System

The case study system in business administration course initiates students into ways of independent thought and responsible judgment. Case studies provide real current situations and place the student in an active role to decide the business action and to present it to a peer group of students for their accepting the same. The peer group may act various roles of superiors, peers, and even subordinates when they criticize the decision from various angles. It provides the student presenter the occasion to deal constructively with their contemporaries some of them being elders to him and may be having experience in that business. The faculty is also one critic.

Case studies force students to actually make decisions which can be implemented by them. Thus the learning becomes active. Lectures are passive learning unless they are followed by exercises. But the exercises may not provide the type of environment that case study provides wherein the student who made the decision has to present to rest of students and get their agreement or modify his decision in response to the comments and suggestions by others.

Business management is both technical and human matter. Business administrators and managers have to understand how people in various roles in the total business system - Suppliers, Producers, Sellers, Consumers, Investors, Bankers, Government agencies, Media - will react to specific business actions. Case study method provides an opportunity to the students to observe the reactions of his fellow students to the proposals that he made as a part of case presentation.

The case method also presents an opportunity to learn from others and modify thoughts. This provides a group discussion platform to agree to certain features of a proposals and to disagree with certain parts of proposals and make an effort to arrive at a consensus.

Case Provides Raw Material

Case provides the raw material with which the student develops his decision. The case class is not meant for absorption of knowledge alone but it forces the student to think independently using his accumulated knowledge up to that point in time and present it to other without any fear or shyness.

Business education has to provide the ability to see vividly the potential relationships between the facts of the situation related to both things and people and make judgment. The judgments have to be communicated to other organization members to initiate agreement and action.

Business education has to accelerate the progress of a candidate to a position of responsibility in comparison to a person who enters business without MBA. Hence the objective of business education has to be to prepare the student to occupy a position say within five years which the person without MBA may take 10 ten years.

The lecture method may also provide similar inputs. But a dynamic process wherein the student himself takes the decision and feels confident about it is much more powerful than the passive learning.

The case method may bring out some innovative solutions from the students with which all the members of the class including the faculty members may be in agreement. This calls for real appreciation of the presenter and such appreciations will make students more confident in their real life assignments. They develop the ability of creative problem solving.

Case Studies Do not Provide Real Experience with Profits and Losses - But They Provide Simulated Experience without the Risk

There are some critics who say the case does not provide the exact replica of the real situation and students do not actually implement their decisions and incur profits and losses. Gragg agrees with the criticism and states that anything except experience can be exactly like experience. But the case method provides a training period where risk is eliminated. The student gets acquainted with process of making real decisions without risk to himself. In the course of his education, he is provided the opportunity to live through a number of diverse real situations which if he has to experience in real life would take a life time. Through the case study training, he develops analytical and synthesizing experience that will provide a basis for comparison when he is asked to do a real life problem and implement it.

Important Points from

Tough-Mindedness and The Case Method

Malcolm P. McNair

From an address given on February 25, 1953 at the first meeting of participants of 23rd Advanced Management Program at the Harvard Business School

Case discussion is an exercise in decision-making. For learning through case discussions, tough-mindedness is necessary to analyse the facts and issues following logical paths of reasoning and judgment to come out with appropriate decisions and conclusions. The toughness is intellectual to persist with the learning effort till an adequate comprehension is made of the situation described. How much effort the student has to make depends on his reaching that comprehension.

The instructor's job is to see that men in the class settle down to a tough-minded analysis and do not become content with a superficial analysis.

The principal value of case method is not facts and theories accumulated. No doubt the student will accumulate them by digging the case and other materials available to him in library (and presently on internet). But value accrues in the power that they will develop in digging now for the digging they have to do in actual situations. The mastery of decision making is the purpose of the entire case based curriculum. Case method provides you the power to analyze a new situation, to formulate an actionable program for positive outcome, and carry out the program through people.

Businesses can hire many people who solve problems that have one right answer. But the pay more to people who have the capability to find the best solution appropriate to the situation when many alternatives are possible.  This requires creativity, judgment and leadership to implement the solution.

The essence of profit is managing risk and uncertainty. The human spirit must always try to do good things without shunning the risk of failure. (We say there must be expected profit in a venture not the possibility of loss. Possibility of loss is always there and we must bear the loss always psychologically as well as the ability of ours to live within reduced means.)

Updated 4 February 2017, 28 January 2017