Sunday, November 30, 2014

30 November Knowledge History - Science, Engineering and Management

1899 - Aluminum was first used as electric conductor.
1924 -  The first photographs sent by radio across the Atlantic as a public demonstration were received in New York and published next day in the New York Herald Tribune.
1954 - Meteorite struck a woman.


Presence of Water - Ice on Mercury is confirmed

Birthdays of  Engineers, Managers, Professors, Researchers and  Scientists 

Nobel Prize Winners

1869 - Nils Gustaf Dalen - 1912 Nobel in Physics
1889 - Edgar Douglas Adrian - 1932 Nobel in Medicine
1915 -   Henry Taube - Canadian-born American chemist - Awarded the Nobel Prize for Chemistry in 1983  for his extensive research into the oxidation-reduction processes involving the ions of metallic elements.
1926 - Andrew V. Schally - 1977 Nobel in Medicine

1793 - Joseph Lukas Schonlein - helped in teaching medicine as natural science.
1819 - Cyrus West Field - US enterpreneur who promoted transatlantic telephone line between New York and London
1858 - Jagadish Chandra Bose
1899 - Andrew Jackson Moyer - mass production of pencillin

Management Revision

The Nature and Purpose of Planning - Review Notes

Objectives and Goals - Review Notes


Presence of Water - Ice on Mercury is confirmed

Knowledge History of the Day - Index for the Year

Management Theory Review Blog
Management Knowledge Center
Engineering and Technology Knowledge Center
Science Knowledge Center
Social Science Knowledge Center

Saturday, November 29, 2014

Involving Employees in Innovation of Processes and Products

The Benefits of Involving Employees in Innovation

The nationwide study of employee-driven innovation (LO 2006) shows that  companies that are capable of combining product development with the involvement of their employees have a number of growth-promoting and competitive advantages.

The creation of an attractive workplace for skilled labour, an increase in job satisfaction and the
reduction of sickness absence and negative stress are some of the main benefits that appear from
both studies. In turn, they lead to a further improvement of bottomline results and an enhancement of
competitiveness. Improved bottom-line results and competitiveness.

Both the nationwide study (LO 2006) and the current case analysis of Saint-Gobain, Isover and DSB
demonstrate that employee-driven innovation has a positive impact on a company’s total profit performance. The involvement of both skilled and unskilled workers encourages and supports the
development of new products and processes in international companies as well as in local ones: “The
involvement of the employees is indispensable in a globalized organization. They possess a wealth of information that company cannot afford not to take advantage of.”  58 per cent of the managers in workplaces where unskilled and skilled workers were involved in the innovation process
considered that their financial performance and bottom-line results had improved as a result of their
approach to innovation. This conclusion is well supported by the case analyses.

Increased job satisfaction – an attractive workplace The fact that employee-driven innovation produces satisfied employees is also one of the results to emerge from the nationwide study. Evidently, companies that actively involve their employees in product and process innovation
report higher employee satisfaction.

Employee Involvement in Innovation in Infosys - 2014

28 November 2014
Infosys CEO Vishal Sikka engaged with over 160,000 employees and shortlisted 10 ideas through a crowdsourcing exercise, murmuration.

Sikka first connected with over 160,000 engineers on July 15, asking them to share with him the key areas of innovation that they believed the clients were focusing on. From the initial 2,700 ideas by employees, the company came up with a longlist of about 70 solutions, before finally narrowing down to 10 such ideas which it believed could be backed.

 16 July 2014
Infosys has sent a video message from the CEO-designate, and a letter signed by COO U B Pravin Rao, to all 1.6 lakh employees, urging them to participate in an initiative, called Murmuration, to crowdsource ideas from them in significant areas of operation.

11 Sep 2014

Chief Executive Vishal Sikka has shortlisted 68 ideas from his crowdsourcing initiative, Murmuration, at Infosys that saw more than 2,600 proposals.Each idea was evaluated based on set criteria - Desirability (for clients), Feasibility (for the company), Potential (for growth in the market), Clarity (of thought and articulation) and Viability (with regard to Infosys offerings).

Employee Involvement in Innovation in Cognizant

Cognizant involves employees in innovation efforts and has brought 15 such products to the market by 2014 according to  Gordon Coburn, president,  Cloud360, a Cognizant Business Cloud product , is a product offering which came from employees' innovative ideas.

Cognizant gives seed funding also like venture capitalists to team of employees to develop the products. The firm has close to 200,000 employees.

Employee Innovation at HCL

In 2011-12, HCL awarded My-Cloud solution as the winner of its annual employee innovation idea contest. MyCloud, which helps in cloud management, is now used by over 120 customers, making it HCL's "most successful employee-led proposition".

Friday, November 28, 2014

Technology Management - Introduction

 Technology management
1 Key definitions

Considering etymology of the word technology as ‘techne’ and ‘logos’ from the Greek language, the term technology can be translated into the definition of skill to apply proper techniques (Hakkarainen 2006) or practical application of knowledge (Webster 2010).

Burgelman et al. (2001: 4) defines technology as “technology refers to theoretical and practical knowledge, skills and artifacts that can be used to develop products and services as well their production and delivery systems. Technology can be embodied in people, materials, cognitive and physical processes, plant, equipment, and tools”.

Technology management is defined by several authors and institutes like National Research Council of U.S.A. (1987) and European Institute of  Technology and Innovation Management (2010).

To further the discussion and to add precision to the evolving MoT domain, the National Research Council (1987) developed the following definition to organize, guide, and stimulate research efforts on the management of technology:

Management of technology links engineering, science, and management disciplines
to address the planning, development, and implementation of technological capabilities
to shape and accomplish the strategic and operational objectives of an organization
( National Research Council (1987). Management of Technology: The Hidden Competitive Advantage. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press, p. 2).

Gregory (1995) has proposed a definition based on a generic process view to technology management. The generic processes of identification, selection, acquisition, exploitation and protection are also included in the definition of European Institute of Technology and Innovation Management.

Cetindamar et al. (2009b) have summarized the definitions of several authors (e.g. Roberts 1988, Gregory 1995, Rush et al. 2007, Dodgson et al. 2008, Levin & Barnard 2008). Cetindamar et al. (2009b) concludes that there might be a consensus about the core process activities of technology management. On the other hand, the scope of technology management is diversely enhanced by, for example, strategy, knowledge, learning, planning, resource, competence, capability, innovations, product development, and
commercialization views.

There exists several definitions and differing understandings on what is knowledge management. In simple terms, knowledge management is about managing what we know (Wilson 2002). In this dissertation, knowledge management is understood as identification, creation, codifying, storing and sharing of knowledge to make it available for business purposes of an enterprise.

It is necessary to differentiate technology management from knowledge management: technology management is concerned with skills to apply and utilize knowledge for business needs and purposes.

2  Schools of technology management

Development paths of management of technology and R&D management can be traced back to the end of 19th century to corporate R&D laboratories. Since then technology management has evolved along 2nd, 3rd and 4th generation R&D until end of 20th century (e.g. Talonen 2008).

Drejer (1997) summarizes four schools of technology management: R&D management, innovation management, technology planning and strategic

3 Technology management frameworks

Frameworks are generally used to present and communicate ideas or concepts in a structured way to support understanding of the topic under study. For considering the applicable viewpoints that a framework should provide, Phaal et al. (2004) refers to a meta-framework of Shehabuddeen (2001) that represents conceptual, applied, dynamic and static dimensions to the topics to be presented in a framework. Necessary abstraction, practicality, position of the elements, and interaction of the elements can be presented in a framework through these dimensions.

 A variety of theoretical, commercial and practical frameworks for presenting ideas related to technology management have been depicted (e.g. Phaal et al. 2000, Talonen 2008). The main types of existing technology management frameworks and their key characteristics are presented in Table.

Each of the framework types represents a partial solution to the problem of ‘what are the elements of  technology management’.

Pilkington & Teichert (2006) and Brockhoff (2003) give an explanation that the reason for the
ambiguity of the field of technology management can be traced back to its early roots to management of R&D laboratories, and that the positioning of the field, amongst other disciplines, has been difficult due to its intertwined nature.

The underlying skeleton of the framework types indicate an approach where attempts are made to define the key processes, functions, routines, methods and tools for specific technology management activities. Secondly, technology  management activities are presented as a discipline that needs to be integrated with the core business processes, and with market and business strategies of an enterprise.

A third approach is to manage knowledge flows of a company as embedded in other processes to link technology as a resource for reaching business objectives, or to manage technology specifically as part of innovation or new product development processes. An integrated management approach divides fields of technology management in normative, strategic and operative dimensions of organizational management from perspectives of objectives, structures and behavior, and outcomes of managed activities.

Due to complexity of the field, and dependency on industry context, the framework types are quite generic. There exists profound knowledge on generalized theories on phenomena about technological development, technology diffusion, dominant designs, innovations, and about role of core competences and dynamic capabilities in enterprises (e.g. Utterback & Abernathy 1975, Dosi 1982, Anderson & Tushman 1990, Rogers 2003, von Hippel 1988, Prahalad & Hamel 1990, Teece et al. 1997).

On the other hand, specific practices have been developed, for example, on technology forecasting, road mapping, portfolio management, evaluation, benchmarking, selection, patenting, licensing, decision grids and strategy making (see e.g. Phaal et al. 2006). Nevertheless, none of the frameworks present a comprehensive view to the entire field.


 Main types of technology management frameworks.

Generic process model
Generic five process models: identification, selection,acquisition, exploitation and protection.
Gregory (1995)

Generic five processes and learning seen as dynamic capability.
Cetindamar et al.

Technology management functions

Key functions related to technology management: technology strategy, road mapping, development,
information and knowledge management, acquisition, transfer, forecasting, product development, life-cycle
management, commercialization.
Kropsu-Vehkaperä et al. (2009)

Technology management routines
Key routines: producing scientific and technological knowledge, transforming knowledge into working artifacts, matching artifacts with user requirements, providing organizational support.
Levin & Barnard (2008)

Integration of technology management activity to business processes
Five best practices to integrate technology planning with business planning: planning, involvement,
commitment, buy-in, accountability.
Metz (1996)

Generic framework integrating technology management core processes to processes of strategy,
innovation and operations.
Phaal et al. (2000, 2004)

Technology strategy  approach
Technology strategy creation and implementation regarding to definition of core and complementary
technologies, competencies, make/buy decisions, environment analysis, planning.
Burgelman et al.(2001), Porter (1995), Dodgson et al. (2008)

Integrated management concept
Technology management as a task of general management: normative (vision, know-how acquisition, decision-making, policies, innovation culture creation); strategic (planning, organizational design, make/buy, alliances creation), operative (R&D goals, motivation, tasks fulfillment)
Tschirky (1991) Luggen & Tschirky

Innovation funnel
Integrating New Product Development from concepts to commercialization, through knowledge flows and decision-making within commercial/market and networked technology/resource/R&D perspectives.
Wheelwright & Clark (1992), Chesbrough (2006)

Knowledge management Integration and management of knowledge dimensions (what, why, how, when, who, where) by processes, methods, tools and people.
Nonaka (1995), Chai et al. (2003)

Methods and tools approach
Road mapping, blue-box analysis, portfolio analysis, forecasting, decision tree, performance indicators.
See e.g. Phaal et al.(2006)

Source: Elements of Strategic Technology Management, Kari Sahlman, PhD Thesis, Oulu University, 2010

Tech Management - Course outline - Newman

Technology Management - Case Study

Managing introduction of new technology in multiplant network
MIT 1990 working paper

Management of Technology - Paul Lowe, 1995
Management of Technology: Perception and Opportunities
Paul Lowe
Springer, 31-Oct-1995 - Business & Economics - 358 pages

Explains the purpose of a technology strategy and the need for its integration with other business policies
Google Book Link with preview

Important point - neglected area on technology management

Proposal of manufacturing technology management as a new research framework in technology management.

Authors Seino, T. (Corp. Manuf. Eng. Center, Toshiba Corp., Japan) ; Kyomasu, N. ; Nomura, T.

One of the most important issues facing manufacturing industries is the realization of “value innovations”, which create new value for customers by producing new products, systems and services.

However, “process innovations”, which improve current activities and business processes used in producing current products, are as important as value innovations because most manufacturing companies depend on current business to earn sales and profits. Manufacturing technology has been playing an essential role in process innovations by producing high-quality, low-cost products with a short lead time.

In recent years, manufacturing technology has also become important for achieving value innovations, especially by creating more capable new production equipment/devices and better materials.

In spite of the importance of manufacturing technology, technology management methods and approaches have not been sufficiently discussed from the viewpoints of manufacturing technology. In this paper, manufacturing technology management (MTM) is proposed as a new framework in technology management. Furthermore, research themes and an evaluation method of MTM are discussed.

Published in:
Technology Management in the Energy Smart World (PICMET), Portland, OR 2011 Proceedings of PICMET '11:
Date of Conference: July 31 2011-Aug. 4 2011

Thursday, November 27, 2014

Innovation and Entrepreneurship, 2nd Edition - John Bessant, Joe Tidd - 2011 - Book Information

Innovation and Entrepreneurship, 2nd Edition

John Bessant, Joe Tidd
April 2011

The Management of Technological Innovation: Strategy and Practice - 2008 Book Information

The Management of Technological Innovation: Strategy and Practice

Mark Dodgson, David M. Gann, Ammon Salter
Oxford University Press, 07-Feb-2008 -  408 pages

The management of technological innovation (MTI) is one of the most important challenges facing businesses today. Innovation has become the fundamental driver of competitiveness for firms of all sizes in virtually all business sectors and nations. The first edition of this book has become one of the most popular texts for students of innovation and technology management. This new edition sees David Gann and Ammon Salter join Mark Dodgson as authors, drawing on their combined experience of 60 years of researching and teaching MTI. It combines the most relevant theoretical analysis with contemporary and historical empirical evidence to provide a comprehensive, yet concise and readable, guide to the challenges of MTI. By explaining the innovation process the book reveals the broad scope of MTI and its importance for company survival, growth and sustainability. It describes how MTI has to be managed strategically and how this is successfully achieved by formulating and implementing strategy and delivering value. Chapters provide frameworks, tools and techniques, and case studies on managing: innovation strategy, communities, and networks, R&D, design and new product and service development, operations and production, and commercialization. Based on robust analysis, the book provides a wide range of empirical evidence from a huge diversity of case studies, with around fifty case studies newly written for this edition. It analyses MTI in all parts of the world, in companies large and small, and in services, manufacturing, and resource-based business sectors. This new edition has been fully revised and updated to reflect the latest teaching and research, and to ensure its continuing relevance to the contemporary world of MTI. It will be an important resource for academics, students, and managers throughout the world, is a recommended text for students of innovation and technology management at postgraduate and undergraduate level, and is particularly valuable for MBA courses.

Strategy and Communication for Innovation - 2014 - Book Information

Strategy and Communication for Innovation

Nicole Pfeffermann, Tim Minshall, Letizia Mortara
Springer Science & Business Media, 09-Jan-2014 -  482 pages

The innovation economy sets new standards for global business and requires efficient innovation management to plan, execute and evaluate innovation activities, establish innovation capability and coordinate resources and capacities for innovation on an intra- and inter-organizational level. Communication has become a critical factor underpinning successful innovation. As a new communication field, innovation communication facilitates the successful launches of new products and services, the establishment of stakeholder relationships, and the strengthening of corporate reputation in the long-run. Consequently, firms today need to develop a strong portfolio of communication tools as an integral part of their strategic innovation management activities. This new edition mainly concentrates on emerging approaches and methods for integrating communication as part of strategic innovation management. A key theme is the provision of an integrated perspective to bridge the gap between innovation management and communication management at both strategic and operational levels. This book makes an important contribution to this evolving academic domain by providing multiple perspectives on the latest research on innovation communication and strategic open innovation. It also provides guidance for managers seeking to understand the diverse ways by which they can leverage communication to support successful innovation.

Sunday, November 16, 2014

Planning and Organizing HRD Department

PWC Survey 2014
44% of HR personnel say insufficient 2014. 40% say it in 2014
Lack of budget 23% in 2014. 24% in 2013

2013 Survey
Barriers for HRD

Strategic Planning for HRD (Google eBook)
Jerry W. Gilley
American Society for Training and Development, 2007 - Business & Economics - 16 pages

Apply the strategic planning process to your HRD program with the tools and strategies in this Info-line. A flow chart outlines the process and step-by-step guidelines help you develop an environmental analysis, establish goals and objectives, and create an action plan.

Human Resource Development: Today and Tomorrow
Ronald R. Sims
IAP, 01-Jan-2006 - Business & Economics - 339 pages

This book is written with the belief that HRD professionals will continue to learn, change and find ways to reinvent themselves and the profession individually and collectively as we move further into the 21st century. A major point of this book is that HRD will continue to become more and more important to organizational success. And, that in as calls for accountability and bottom line impact continue to rise, HRD professionals will be proactive in demonstrating their value to the organization. The primary audience for this book is practicing HRM and HRD professionals, and other organizational leaders. The book provides tested and proven ideas important to demonstrating the value of HRD. From a practical viewpoint, it is based on actual experience, a strong research base, and accepted practices presented in an easy to read form. A second target audience is students of HRD and HRM who are preparing for careers in this important field. This book will help them develop a solid foundation to the study of HRD practices that are key to HRD success regardless of the type of organization. A third target audience is managers or leaders at all levels of an organization who are increasingly expected to take on HRD responsibilities while also partnering with HRD professionals. It offers these individuals a firsthand look at what they should expect of their HRD functions or areas and how they can encourage HRD professionals in their organizations to be accountable' strategic partners in helping the organization achieve its success by getting the most out of its human capital.

Foundations of Human Resource Development
Richard A. Swanson, Elwood F. Holton
Berrett-Koehler Publishers, 2001 - Business & Economics - 439 pages

Foundations of Human Resource Development is a careful presentation of the basic theory and practice of human resource development (HRD). The book clearly frames and explains HRD in a manner that is useful for beginners and experts. Working definitions and core values derived from the history of HRD and its present challenges are presented.

HRD Innovations: A Case Study From the Finnish Paper Industry
Ville Nurmi
Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, Finland
Paper Presented at the European Conference on Educational Research,
Lahti, Finland 22 - 25 September 1999

Linking HRD Programs with Organizational Strategy: Twelve Case Studies from the Real World of Training
William J. Rothwell
American Society for Training and Development, 1998 -  221 pages
The case studies included in this volume show you how organizations of varied sizes and types have attempted to link human resource development (HRD) efforts-some successfully and others not so successfully-to organizational strategy. Many cases are drawn from U.S. domestic organizations lead you through the best practices.

First article
Linking HRD to Org. Strategy
Many people feel that if only HRD could be effectively linked to the organization's long term strategy, then it would command top management's attention, galvanise management support, and attract additional resources.

a perspective on improving organizations
and people in the paper industry
Robert H. Rouda & Mitchell E. Kusy, Jr.
(C) copyright 1995 by the Technical Association of the Pulp and Paper Industry.
This is the first in a series of articles which originally appeared in Tappi Journal in 1995-96, to introduce methods addressing the development of individuals and organizations through the field of Human Resource Development. (The article has been updated, and is reproduced with permission of the copyright owner.)

BHEL HRD Institute has a budget of Rs. 60 cr in year 2000. It is meant for senior managers of BHEL.

Resource Requirements of HRD

Chapter 16 Planning for HRD

Friday, November 14, 2014

14 November Knowledge History - Science, Engineering and Management

1985, the first discovery of a fullerene was published in the journal Nature by the American chemists Robert F. Curl, Jr. and Richard E. Smalley, and Sir Harold W. Kroto of the University of Sussex, England.

1922 - The BBC officially opened and began its daily domestic radio service broadcasting with the 6:00pm news read by Arthur Burrows from 2LO, Marconi House, London.


Gottfried Wilhem Leibniz (1716) - Mathematician (developed calculus), Logician, Philosopher
Robert Fulton (1765) - Designed and constructed the first successful steam boat Clemont.
Leo Hendrick Baekeland (1863) - Inventor of Bakelite
Edward H White II (1930) - First US Astronaut to walk in space.

Nobel Prize Winners

Sir Frederick Grant Banting (1891) - Physiology - Extraction of hormone insulin

Knowledge History of the Day - Index for the Year

Management Theory Review Blog
Management Knowledge Center
Engineering and Technology Knowledge Center
Science Knowledge Center
Social Science Knowledge Center

Wednesday, November 12, 2014

The Marketing / Accounting Interface - Robin Roslender, Richard M.S. Wilson - Book Information

The Marketing / Accounting Interface

Robin Roslender, Richard M.S. Wilson
Routledge, 13-Sep-2013 - Business & Economics - 232 pages

When marketing managers and financial managers join forces within any business, the result can often be poor communication on financial criteria and goals. The risk of this situation occurring is inevitably present when those with different professional backgrounds and roles are working in accordance with their own norms.

In his seminal 1956 paper on general systems theory, the economist Kenneth Boulding referred to the phenomenon of "specialised ears and generalised deafness", which can be seen to exist when marketing managers are financially illiterate or when financial managers lack the necessary insights to design, implement and operate accounting systems which are useful to marketing managers in carrying out their roles.

It is increasingly difficult to attach credence to the idea of marketing managers who lack financial skills, or financial managers who fail to relate to the context in which marketing managers operate. Understanding the marketing/accounting interface is therefore important in generating emergent properties from the interaction of marketers and accountants whereby the whole is greater than the sum of the parts. The chapters in this volume seek to address this challenge.

This book was originally published as a special issue of the Journal of Marketing Management.

Similar books are there in the area of production/accounting interface also. I need to identify them and give information on them also.

Sunday, November 9, 2014

Technology Intelligence - Now a Full Fledged Subject and Program

The Centre for Technology Management has defined 'technology intelligence' as

"the capture and delivery of technological information as part of the process whereby an organisation develops an awareness of technological threats and opportunities." (Kerr et al., 2006).

Intelligence comes from external sources, but it may also be contained within the organisation - explicitly or tacitly - if it has already been acquired by an internal party. Firms need to be able to find and use this information quickly and easily, as well as acquiring the information they need from external sources.

Researchers ar IFM created a three-level model comprising the framework, system, and process of acquiring technology intelligence. The model was tested through case studies of technology intelligence systems in 14 technology-based companies.

Information about the book: Technology intelligence: Identifying threats and opportunities from new technologies

Consultants for Technology Intelligence

Data Mining Tools for Technology and Competitive Intelligence 
Laura Ruotsalainen 

Approximately 80% of global scientific and technical knowledge can be found, accessed and understood from patent documents.  
Patents are  a unique source of information since they are collected, screened and published according to internationally agreed standards. In addition to providing technology intelligence, patent documents offer a business competitive intelligence by revealing a competitor's strengths and strategies in the area of technology development. Information gained from patents can also help in locating partners for cross-licensing and collaboration. 

Since the patent system was established, more than 60 million patent applications have been published and manual analysis of this huge data is not feasible any more and use of computing technology is cost effective.

Thursday, November 6, 2014

6 November Knowledge History - Science, Engineering and Management


1814 - Adolphe Sax - Inventor Saxophone

1886 - Chester Barnard

1968 Jerry Yang  - Yahoo


1899, James Packard and his brother, William Doud Packard, had finished building a car of their own design, and gave it a road test on the streets of Warren, Ohio.

Knowledge History of the Day - Index for the Year

Management Theory Review Blog
Management Knowledge Center
Engineering and Technology Knowledge Center
Science Knowledge Center
Social Science Knowledge Center

November - Month Birthdays - Management Scholars and Professionals

1 - Markus Venzin (1968), Tim Cook (1960)
3 - Tomi Laamanen (1968)
7 - Chester Barnard (1886), Tom Peters (1942)
8 - George Dantzig
13 - Louis Brandeis (1856), John J. Mcconnell (1945)
15 - Edith Penrose (1914)
18 - Vijay Govindrajan (1949)
19 - Peter Drucker (1909), Julian Keilson(1924),   Jack Welch (1935)
20 - Eric Dent (1961)
22 - Rakesh Khurana (1967)
24 - Christa Muth (1949)
25 - Andrew Carnegie (1835)
27 - Konosuke Matsushita (1894)
28 - Friedrich Engels (1820), Claude Levi-Strauss (1908)
29 - Peter Dunn (1977)

Date not specified

Robert Harris

Saturday, November 1, 2014

Crowdfunding Platform - Website Development and Marketing

HBR Guide to Negotiating - 2014 - Book Information

183 pages. Publication Date: Jun 27, 2014.

Using the "HBR Guide to Negotiating" and the accompanying tools & video, you'll learn a collaborative and creative approach that results in better outcomes and stronger relationships for all.

The "HBR Guide to Negotiating eBook + Tools + Video" will help you:
(1) Identify the real issues at stake,
(2) Prepare materials in advance,
(3) Set the right tone as you begin the negotiation,
(4) Successfully handle emotions,
(5) Tame a hard bargainer,
(6) Know when to walk away,
(7) Manage multiple-party negotiations, and
(8) Reality-proof your agreement.

Use the tools to help you identify the key interests of all stakeholders, brainstorm options, and establish fair standards you can all agree on.

You can watch the video case to see these negotiation techniques in action. Together they will help you sharpen your  negotiation skills and The skills will help you to become a  successful negotiator.

A tip from the book
Get Multiple Parties in Sync During a Negotiation