Monday, July 29, 2013

29 July Knowledge History - Science, Engineering and Management


29 July 1841 - Henri Fayol - Started the discussion of Principles of  Management in Engineering or Industrial Organizations

29 July 1917 Harry Boot - Developer of Cavity Magnetron

Nobel Laureates

1898 Issidor Issac Rabi - Physics
1900 Eyvind Johnson - Literature


1890 - Laroy Sunderland Starrett received a U.S. patent for his micrometer screw guage (No. 433,311),

Knowledge History of the Day - Index for the Year

Management Theory Review Blog
Management Knowledge Center
Engineering and Technology Knowledge Center
Science Knowledge Center
Social Science Knowledge Center

Saturday, July 20, 2013

Political Party Marketing - Understanding the Needs and Desires of People

Management of Political Party Article  Series

Importance of Desires and Needs of People

Political parties in a democracy exist to reflect the desires and needs of people. An individual or group of persons should try to form a political party only when they have the intention to represent the people in the legislature and administrative wings of a state.
Before the party is formed as well as when the party is in power, political party has to carry out marketing. It has to know what people want and desire.
In a democracy, wherein political parties are not adequately connected to people, there will be frustration among people. There will be agitation to change the system whenever majority of the people feel frustrated with the system.
Every political party member is to be entrusted the work of meeting around 50 persons every year to know people, keep the channels of contact open and ascertain the desires and needs of people.
Print based newspapers and periodicals were available and were used to some extent by political parties.
Information technology based systems now can be put in place to leverage the basic personal contact established by primary members of the party.
Political Parties and the Internet: Net Gain
The web sites of political parties can be used to ascertain the popular opinion on various issues. Various TV channels are employing this method. But are political parties employing the technique? Each and every politician needs to put up a voting facility  on his website for his constituency people for each piece of legislation on which he has to vote in the legislature. He has to ascertain first desire of his people and if there is a marginal difference he may call for a public meeting to explain his reasoning. But if a overwhelming majority gives an opinion, he has to honor the opinion even if he is personally against it. 
Can visitors cite any legislator who follows the practice of asking his constituency people to vote on pending legislations?

Behavioral Segmentation of Potential Voters

Kotler in his discussion of behavioral segmentation includes segmentation based on attitude. In attitude based segmentation, five groups are identified for a product or service in a market. The five groups of people are enthusiastic, positive, indifferent, negative, and hostile. Door-to-door political campaigners change their canvassing approach according to the attitude of the voter. Enthusiastic voters are thanked and will be asked to vote without fail. Reinforcement is done for positive voters. Efforts are made to win over indifferent voters. They do not spend time with voters with negative and hostile attitude to the party and the candidate. Party has to undertake its marketing and communication activities to see that negative and hostile voters with respect to their party are in a minority at the start of the election campaign. Then only their team can hope to effectively canvass for victory.


Political Market Planning Activities

Market position analysis
Determining how voters perceive the party and candidates

Objective setting
Determining the issues which will be highlighted for competing.

Strategic alternative analysis
Selection of segments in the electorate and messages for these segments

Strategy implementation
Allocation of resources

Monitoring and control
Mid-term analysis and post-election analysis

Source: The Political Marketing Planning Process: Improving Image and Message in Strategic Target Areas
Marketing Intelligence and Planning, 2002


The idea of political marketing By Nicholas J. O'Shaughnessy, Stephan C. M. Henneberg, 2002
Political marketing and British political parties: the party's just begun By Jennifer Lees-Marshment
Current Issues in Political Marketing By Walter W. Wymer, Jennifer Lees-Marshment, 2006

Interesting Web Sites and Blogs

Grand Central Political, a website connecting people working in politics and political media directly with politicians, campaigns, public relations firms, and media outlets looking for both experts and new talent. The firm serves the USA, Canada, UK and France.
Located through the knol Rachel Marsden.

New Related to Political Party Marketing Activities


Related Knols

Links to be changed to Blog posts

International Day Democracy - 15th September


More Articles and Papers

Research Papers

Utilizing Political Ideologies To Market A Political Candidate
Shermichael V. Singleton, Morehouse College, USA
Andrew Honeycutt, Shorter University, USA
Journal of Business & Economics Research – January 2012 Volume 10, Number 1

Comparative Advertising: Strategy in U.S. House Elections
Conference Paper, 2011

Political Advertising in Democratic Taiwan
Audiences’ Perspectives on Political Figures through Image-Building Advertisements

The political marketing planning process: improving image and message in strategic target areas
2002 paper

Political marketing – vive la diffĂ©rence!
Andrew Lock and Phil Harris
Faculty of Management and Business,
The Manchester Metropolitan University, Manchester, UK
European Journal of Marketing,
Vol. 30 No. 10/11, 1996, pp. 14-24.


News Related to Political Party Marketing Activities

12 August 2010

Tories posted a you tube video blaming the earlier labor administration for spending cuts.
Youtube Channel Conservative Party UK

15th July 2010
Australian labour  Party commissioned a social media platform.


Originally posted on Knol
Knol Number 670, Traffic rank 105

Monday, July 1, 2013

Emotions and Emotional Intelligence - Research, Researchers, Philosophers and Writers

A List of Researchers, Philosophers, and Writers and Some of Their Papers, Articles and weblinks

The initial list is being collected using Goleman's books as the basis. The list is being developed chapterwise due to it. The list will be subsequently expanded. 

Book - Daniel Goleman's Emotional Intelligence

Aristotle's Challenge
Aristotle, The Nicomachean Ethics
Part One - The Emotional Brain
Chapter 1 What Are Emotions For?
Chapter 2 Anatomy of an Emotional Hijacking
Joseph LeDoux, Neuroscientist at the Center of Neural Science at New York University
Dr. Antonio Damasio, Neurologist at the University of Iowa College of Medicine
Part Two - The Nature of Emotional Intellgence
Chapter 3 - When Smart is Dumb
Richard Herrnstein and Charles Murray
Book "The Bell Curve"
Karen Arnold, Professor of Education at Boston University
Howard Gardner, Harvard School of Education
Principal publications - list
Multiple Lenses on The Mind, 2005

The 25th anniversary of the publication of Howard Gardner’s Frames of Mind: The Theory of Multiple
Intelligences, 2008
B.F. Skinner
E.L. Thorndike
Peter Salovey
Indexs of articles
Emotional Intelligence - Seminal Article by Salovey and Mayer
Evidence that EI makes a difference. Presentation 2004
The Evolution of Emotional Intelligence, Presentation, 2005
Emotion Regulation Abilities and the Quality of Social Interaction, Paper in Emotion 2005
Robert Sternberg
Sternberg, R. J. (1993). Sternberg Triarchic Abilities Test. Unpublished research instrument available from author.
Sternberg, R. J. (1985). Beyond IQ: A triarchic theory of human intelligence. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Sternberg, R. J. (1996). Successful intelligence. New York: Simon & Schuster. (Paperback edition: New York: Dutton, 1997).
Sternberg, R. J., & Grigorenko, E. L.  (2000). Teaching for successful intelligence. Arlington Heights, IL: Skylight Training and Publishing Inc. 
Jack Block
Chapter 4 Know Thyself
Socrates,  “Know thyself.”

Freud, Evenly hovering attention

John Mayer, A University of New Hampshire Psychologist

Peter Salovey, Yale University

Edward Diener, A University of Illinois at Urbana psychologist

Dr. Peter Sifnoes, the Harvard Psychiatrist

Antonio Damasio
Chapter 5 Passion’s Slaves
Page Dubois, Greek Scholar

John Bowlby and D.W. Winnicott, Psychoanalysis

Benjamin Franklin

Dolf Zillmann, Psychology, University of Alabama

Redford Williams, Psychiatry, Duke University

Chogyam Trungpa, a Tibetan teacher

Lizabeth Roemer and Thomas Borkovec, Psychology, Pennsylvania State University

Diane Tice

William Styron

Susan Nolen-Hoeksma

Richard Wenzlaff

Daniel Weinberger

Richard Davidson, Psychology, University of Wisconsin
Chapter 6 The Master Attitude
Sanford Doenbusch, Sociology, Stanford
Walter Mischel, Psychology
Richard Alpert
Ralph Haber
C.R. Snyder, University of Kansas, Psychology
Martin Seligman
Albert Bandura
Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi
Chapter 7 The Roots of Empathy
Robert Rosenthal, Psychology, Harvard: He devised a test of empathy, the PONS (Profile of Nonverbal Sensitivity).
Martin L Hoffman,  New York University
E. B. Titchener (1920s)
Marian Radke-Yarrow and Carolyn Zahn-Waxler, National Institute of Mental Health
Daniel Stern, Psychiatry, Cornell University School of Medicine
Leslie Brother, Psychiatry, California Institute of Technology (Biology of Empathy)
Robert Levenson, Psychology, University of California at Berkeley
John Donne (English Poet)
William Pithers, Vermont Prison Psychologist
Robert Hare, Psychology, University of British Columbia
Chapter 8 The Social Arts
Paul Ekman
Ulf Dimberg, University of Uppsala
John Cacioppo, Social Psychology, Ohio State University
Frank Bernieri, Psychology, Oregon State University
Thomas Hatch
W.H. Auden
Helena Deutsch, Psychoanalyst
Lakin Phillips, Psychology, George Washington University
Stephen Nowicki, Psychology, Emory University
Chapter 9 Intimate Enemies
Sigmund Freud
Leslie Brody and Judith Hall
Carol Gilligan, Harvard
Ted Hudson, Psychology, University of Texas
John Gottman, Psychology, University of Washington
Aaron Beck, Founder of Cognitive Therapy
Robert Levenson, Psychology, University of California at Berkeley
Haim Ginott, Psychology,
Chapter 10 Managing with Heart
Shoshona Zuboff, Psychology, Harvard Business School
J.R. Larson, Psychology, University of Illinois at Urbana
Harry Levinson, Psychoanalyst turned corporate consultant
Dr. Vamik Volkan, Psychiatrist, University of Virginia
Thomsa Pettigrew, Social Psychology,University of California at Santa Cruz
Peter Drucker
Robert Sternberg
Wendy Williams
Robert Kelly and Janet Caplan (HBR article)
Chapter 11 Mind and Medicine
Robert Ader, University of Rochester
Francisco Varela, Ecole Polytechnique, Paris
David Felten
Dr. Camran Nezhat, Surgeon, Stanford University
Dr. Redford Williams, Duke University
Peter Haufman, National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute
Sheldon Cohen, Psychology,Carnegie-Mellon University
Stephen Manuck, Psychology, University of Pittsburgh
John Cacioppo
Dr. Jimmie Holland
Dr.Dean Ornish
Chapter 12 The Family Crucible
Carole Hooven and John Gottman
Dr. T. Berry Brazelton, Paediatrician
Chapter 13 Trauma and Emotional Relearning
Dr.Spencer Eth, Child psychiatrist
D.Dennis Charney
Dr. John Krystal
Dr. Charles Nemeroff
Richard Davidson
Dr. Leonor Terr
Dr. Judith Lewis Herman
Joseph LeDoux
Chapter 14 Temperment Is Not Destiny
Jerome Kagan
Thorsten Wiesel and David Hubel, Neuroscience, Nobel Prize Winners, Brain Growth
Chapter 15 Emotional Literacy
Urie Bronfenbrenner, Psychology, Cornell University
Gerald Patterson
John Lochman
Dr. Fredeirck Goodwin
Dr. David Kupfer
Maria Kovacs
Hilda Bruch
Harry Stack Sullivan, Psychoanalyst
Steven Asher, Psychology, University of Illinois
Stephen Nowicki, Emory University, Psychology
Ralph Tarter, Psychology, Western Psychiatric Institute and Clinic, Pittsburgh
Ronald Kessler, Sociology, University of Michigan
Chapter 16 Scholling the Emotions
Karen Stone McCown
Eric Schaps
Dr. David Hamburg
Linda Lantieri
Mark Greenberg
Tim Shriver
Amitai Etzioni, Social Theorist, George Washington University
Thomas Lickona

Examination of Measurements in Emotional Intelligence, Ergometrika, 2001

My Knols on Emotional Intelligence

Websites on Emotional Intelligence

Originally posted on Knol emotions-and-emotional-intelligence-research-researchers-philosophers-and Knol Number 1298