Monday, January 5, 2015

Brand and Branding - Concept/Definition


The American Marketing Association
(quoted by Philip Kotler)

A Brand is name, term, sign, or design, or a combination of them, intended to identify the goods or services of one seller or group of sellers and to differentiate them from those of competitors.

A brand is a complex symbol. It can convey up to six levels of meaning.

Attributes: The brand and the product for which it is the symbol have attributes. A brand has to convey its attributes.
Benefits: Customers buy a brand or product for benefits and not for its attributes. A brand has convey meaning in terms of benefits.
Values: The brand also says something about the producer's values.
Culture: The brand may represent a certain culture.
Personality: The brand can also project a certain presonality.
User: The brand suggests the kind of consumer who buys or uses the product

Philip Kotler, Marketing Management, 9th Ed., Prentice Hall, NJ, USA, 1997, p.443

Related Knols

Research Papers

The Reality of Brands - Towards an Ontology of Marketing

Brand Meaning
John F.Sherry Junior
In Kellogg on Branding

Originally posted on Knol 2080

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