Emotions – Psychology
Psychology Article Series
Emotions are always accompanied by bodily changes. The bodily changes are linked to factors: a specific event in the environment and thoughts triggered by the event.
The James-Lange theory posits that emotions occur when a stimulus in the environment sets off physiological changes.
The Cannon-Bard theory makes the conjecture that emotions occur when a stimulus in the environment sets off patterns of nervous activity in the hypothalamus.
Cognitive theory agrees with both and holds that neither theory is full explanation. What determines emotions is the cognitive activity resulting from the stimulus that has produced the bodily changes and the environment in which it occurs. This cognitive response is different from different people.
Ten basic emotions
List of Izard
Interest – excitement
Four important complex emotions
(fear plus anger, distress, guilt, interest or shame)
(distress plus anger, contempt, fear, guilt or shame)
(a combination of anger, contempt, and disgust)
(interest plus joy)
Izard, C.E. (1977), Human Emotions, Plenum, New York.
For Further Reading
Jerome Kagan and Julius Segal (1992), Psychology: An Introduction, 7th Edition, Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, Fort Worth, USA.
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